PREVALENCE OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
(MDR-TB) IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA
Odewale Gbolabo1, Oyedeji Jimoh Gbadebo1, Olowe Adekunle Olugbenga1
1Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Aim: To determine the prevalence of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Osun State, Nigeria.
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a major public health problem worldwide, with the highest mortality occurring in developing countries such as Nigeria. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a challenge in developing countries with poor resources. Data regarding the prevalence of MDR-TB among follow-up patients with TB are lacking in Nigeria.
Methods: Total number of 116 sputum samples were collected from previously treated patients with TB from DOTS centres in Osun-State. Microscopy (Ziehl–Neelsen staining) and molecular methods (GeneXpert and PCR) were used to analyze the samples. Target genes known to confer resistance to first-line drugs were amplified. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used to analyze the generated data.
Results: Ziehl Neelsen smear positivity for AFB was 46(40%), while GeneXpert and PCR (IS6110) had positivity of 52(45%) and 54 (47%) respectively. Most of the cases were seen in the age ranges between 20-39 years with 43.6% and 40-59 years with 39.3%. Of the 54 samples that were positive by PCR, genes conferring resistance to ethambutol, rifampicin and isoniazid were detected in 14(26%), 29(54%) and 21(39%) samples, respectively. Thirteen samples (24%) were resistant to both rifampicin and isoniazid while nine samples (17%) were resistant to all.
Conclusion: There is high incidence of multidrug resistance amongst the isolates in this part of Nigeria. Adequate Laboratory facilities for rapid TB culture and molecular analysis are recommended for proper treatment of tuberculosis in Osun State and across Nigeria. This remains an important step in managing TB drug resistance in Nigeria.
ODEWALE GBOLABO, Mr and Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.