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Peris Mbuthia poster

Genomics and Human Health in Africa Conference

MOLECULAR EVIDENCE OF Oesophagostomum stephanostomum CIRCULATING IN FREE-RANGING URBAN-RESTRICTED NONHUMAN PRIMATES IN KENYA

Peris Mbuthia1,2, Edwin Murungi2, Vincent Owino2, Mercy Akinyi3 and Maamun Jeneby1

1Zoonoses Unit, Tropical Infectious Diseases department, Institute of Primate Research (IPR), P.O. Box 24481, Karen 00502, Kenya

2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Egerton University Njoro Campus, P.O Box 536, Egerton 20115, Kenya

3Animal Sciences Department, Institute of Primate Research (IPR), P.O. Box 24481, Karen 00502, Kenya

Aim: Partial characterization of nodular worm circulating in the common free-ranging nonhuman primates in selected Kenyan urban centres.

Background: The sharing of habitat and open water points with free-ranging nonhuman primates (NHPs) may lead to faecal contamination of environment and consequently favours transmission of helminths, especially the soil transmitted nematodes, across vertebrate host species. Of importance is the nodular worm  genus Oesophagostomum, considered a zoonotic nematode endemic in West African countries and non-human primates (NHPs) as one of its natural host. Despite its medical importance, little is known about Oesophagostomum species circulating in free-ranging Chlorocebus aethiops (African green monkeys, AGMs), Papio anubis (olive baboon), Cercopithecus ascanius (Red tailed monkey) and Cercopithecus mitis (Syke’s monkey) found in Kenyan urban centres in East Africa.

Methods: Eighty six faecal samples were collected by rectal swabs from anaesthetized monkeys and stored in 70% ethanol. Extracted total faecal DNA was examined for helminthic nematodes by the robust nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting partial ITS1 and ITS2 gene followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and sequencing of PCR products.

Results: PCR-HRM detected Oesophagostomum genetic material in 20/86 (23%) of the faecal samples. Distinct melt curves from HRM analysis and representative DNA sequences closely matched published O. stephanostomum sequences on NCBI platform. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the sequences into a clade that clustered with O. stephanostomum infecting Gorillas and chimpanzee from West and East Africa.

Conclusion: As contacts between humans and NHPs increases because of rapid urbanization and human population growth, molecular data from this study emphasizes that Oesophagostomum species should be considered as parasite of zoonotic concern beyond its acceptable foci of infection in West Africa.

Miss Peris Mbuthia, zoonoses Unit-Tropical Infectious Diseases department, Institute of Primate Research (IPR)

 

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Arwa Elsamany poster

GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT LEPTIN GENE IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN Bos taurus X KENANA Bos indicus CROSSBREED CATTLE IN SUDAN

Arwa Alsammany1 , Sumaia M.A. Abukashawa1

1Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum

Background: The importance of reproduction traits in dairy cattle breeding programs has dramatically increased recently. Leptin gene is one of the candidate genes, which located at chromosome 4 and is consisted from 3 exons and 2 introns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) opened new vistas in animal breeding and several polymorphic studies on the bovine leptin gene have been reported, SNP LEP/Sau3AI is situated in the second intron. Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate the frequency of leptin gene polymorphism among Bos indicus and Bos Taurus crossbred cattle in Sudan. Materials and Methods:  This study was cross sectional study. During 2016 blood was collected from Holstein Friesian x Kenana crossbreed into EDTA sterile tubes, AA, AB, BB genotypes were detected using PCRRFLP technique. Data analysis was done by using SPSS software. Finding:  Genotype AA was found to be frequent in LEP/Sau3AI SNP. Conclusion:  Genotype AA is more frequent in LEP/Sau3AI SNP, suggesting that it can be used as a good genetic marker in selection and breeding of dairy cattle.

 

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Adetunji Nigeria

 

DISCOVERY OF A NOVEL AND ECOFRIENDLY BIOPESTICIDES DERIVED FROM WILD TYPE AND TRANSGENIC BRASSICA JUNCEA CALLUS MODULATED WITH GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE GENE FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Adetunji Charles Oluwaseuna,b, Paomipem Phazangb, Adetunji Juliana Bunmic,  Neera Bhalla Sarinb,

aEdo University, Department of Microbiology, Applied Microbiology, Biotechnology and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Iyamho, Edo State. Nigeria.

bJawaharlal Nehru University, School of Life Sciences, Laboratory of Genetic Manipulation for Stress Alleviation and Value Addition in Plants, New Delhi-110067. INDIA

c Osun State University, Nutritional and toxicological Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Osogbo Nigeria.

Abstract

Aim

This study utilized secondary metabolites produced from the wild Brassica juncea callus (PMWC) modulated with gamma TMT gene for the production of ecofriendly biopesticides with high tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress in a tomato plant. The phytotoxic metabolites from the transgenic callus (PMTC) were produced from the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the wild callus of Brassica juncea.

Background

Pest and pathogens have been highlighted as a major constrains affecting the increase in agricultural productivity globally. The persistent use of pesticides has led not only to pest and disease resistance but also, bioaccumulation, biomagnification which subsequently affect human health and consequently result to environmental pollution.

Methods
The in-vitro biological control efficacy of these phytotoxic metabolites was evaluated in a greenhouse in comparison with synthetic fungicide. The physiochemical and antioxidant properties were evaluated on the harvested tomato fruits while the in-vivo biochemical assessment of the harvested tomato fruits was carried-out using an albino rat.
Results
The greenhouse evaluations showed a significant increase (p>0.05) in biological control efficacy, growth and yield components of the tomato plant treated with PMTC followed by PMWC when compared with the synthetic fungicide. The harvested tomato fruits showed a reduction in weight loss, ascorbic acid value, soluble solids content, enhanced firmness, higher lycopene content, increase in the activity of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and prevented the release of superoxide free radicals in the following order PMTC > PMWC > synthetic fungicide. The histopathological and biochemical analysis on albino-rat fed with harvested tomato fruits shows mild toxicity with PMTC followed by PMWC when compared to a synthetic fungicide.

Conclusions

Finally, considering the broad-spectrum antifungal activity, plant growth-supporting characteristic, antioxidant promoting qualities, and human health friendliness, make these biopesticides particularly attractive for efficient agricultural applications in plant disease management.

 

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Welcome

Africa is mankind’s ancestral home and the store of its greatest wealth of genetic diversity as well as an equally rich social and cultural heritage. Recent advances in genomics offer new and powerful tools and techniques which allow us to dissect and analyze the genetic structure of individuals, families and populations at unprecedented levels of detail and with nearly global coverage of the variation they contain and affords us new avenues to interpret this variation in the context of biology, history and environment, furthering our understanding of all of these and their relation to the health and wellbeing of individuals and populations worldwide. The application of these tools and technologies to African populations offers unique challenges and opportunities which must be met if their full potential for improving the lives and livelihoods of Africans across the continent is to be realized. Sudan is a microcosm of the diversity of the African continent, neighboring regions and beyond and is fully representative of these challenges and opportunities. As a step towards addressing them, we propose a series of events under the theme of “Genomics and Human Health in Africa” , bringing together relevant stakeholders including scientific and research communities , health care providers and policy makers from across the continent together with international partners and collaborators.

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